Why can we not have all the different types of natural stones that are shown in the catalogs? How can I ensure that I finally get the natural stone that I have chosen?
The catalog is only the first step in the process of choosing a natural stone of your requirement. After analyzing the catalogs you should then ask for a real sample of the natural stone. In the case of selecting natural stone for a big size project, you could follow a further series of procedures. After having obtained a small sample, you could then ask your supplier to show you a small range of that particular natural stone variety initially so that you are, this way, better informed of what variations to expect. Obtaining the technical characteristics of the natural stone is then important. Bigger size samples could be asked for to get a better idea of how the final project will look like. If possible, in some cases, a visit to the quarries and factories may be useful and informative. Often a mockup at the source or the job site is done. And finally, quality control and inspection at job site may be needed. These procedures are often adjusted according to size of the project and country.
How does natural stone compare to other alternatives in terms of sustainability?
Sustainability in natural stone is best understood in the context of thinking of lifecycle. This would mean analyzing factors like preparation of raw materials, manufacture of pre-products, the production phase, end of life disposal, etc. Impact assessment includes energy consumption, raw material consumption, greenhouse effect, acidification, over fertilization, environmental toxins, waste, etc. Natural stone has already been made over hundreds of millions of years and it is mined and the processing is done by physical, and not chemical means. The sub-products can be recycled. The burden on the environment is low thus making natural stone the ideal hard floor covering, when green thinking and sustainability is the criteria. (Ref. German study on hard floor coverings at www.wonasa.com).
What is the lifetime of natural stone?
Eternal. What is the lifetime of the Pyramids (and they exist for 4000 years now)? Or those cathedrals, temples, mosques, palaces and imposing official buildings the existence of which we are taught of when we are very young and still exist when we are at the end of our lives ? In some places thousand year old buildings have been destroyed and recycled stone used in new buildings. In our modern buildings, however, the natural stone life-cycle is usually considered around 80 years.
Where can I find technical data for Lundhs´materials?
Technical data sheets for Lundhs materials can be viewed or downloaded here
Most of the materials are presented both in European Standards, and ASTM standards.
What are the technical standards for stone used in exteriors?
There are different standards in different places. In the USA, for example, the ASTM standards are followed, in most of Europe the EN standards are the norm. In the UK, the BSI standard prevails.
What is the lifetime of natural stone?
Eternal. What is the lifetime of the Pyramids ( and they exist for 4000 years now)? Or those cathedrals, temples, mosques, palaces and imposing official buildings the existence of which we are taught of when we are very young and still exist when we are at the end of our lives ? In some places thousand year old buildings have been destroyed and recycled stone used in new buildings. In our modern buildings, however, the natural stone life-cycle is usually considered around 80 years.
What has the porosity to do with the water absorption of stone?
Porosity is related to water absorption and density of the stone. The higher the porosity, higher is the absorption of water phenomenon. Depending on the application, one should refer to the porosity scale.
What are the general physical properties of natural stone that should be taken into consideration ?
One should ask for the technical data sheet of the stone in consideration. The data will be of-1-a) water absorption b) Compressive strength c) Frost resistance d) Resistance to Bending e) Density f) Abrasive resistance. For external applications testing is becoming increasingly important especially in humid climates.In hot countries certain stones alter themselves, the physical appearance may change
What are the different sizes recommended in natural stone?
Depends on the particular application of the stone. Mosaics are available in the market in sizes as small as 1cm x 1cm. And there are also stone tiles of 1.20 m x 1 m, and sometimes, even bigger. Widely used sizes, however, are 60 x 30 cm, 60 x 60 cm, 120 x 60 cm. The architect can define the size of the project. Recommended sizes by the manufacturers are based not only on aesthetic criteria but also take into account the size of the blocks extracted in the quarries and the optimization in the production systems in the factories to achieve minimum wastage.