other

Can my client afford to buy natural stone ?

Most probably yes, because there are  natural stones which are very economical in price, and even the customer with a limited budget is often surprised to discover how affordable natural stone really is. For each project a natural stone can be found which meets your preferences and fits your budget. When comparing the life cycle versus price with other alternatives, natural stone is definitely affordable.However, there are also stones in the market which are really exclusive and premium and, like all luxury products, command a premium price.




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Is a stone sample an accurate/depiction of the stone?

Samples only serve as an indication of a stone”s physical characteristics. Being a natural product, absolute resemblance cannot be guaranteed. There may be variation in colour and in patterns. Try to see a big size slab or many slabs of the stone, if possible- it will give you a much better idea of what to expect. The modern technologies make your job much simpler- the high quality images that can be seen on the tablets and smartphones can give you a very good idea of what to expect.




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Is stone much more expensive than other building materials?

Due to efficient quarrying methods, modern and competitive processing, stone is surprisingly economical compared to engineered stone or ceramics. If quality, durability and maintenance is taken into consideration, natural stone is a natural choice.




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Is there a catalogue that shows all the existing natural stones?

There are thousands of varieties of different types of stones, and new varieties are constantly appearing in the market as a result of extraction in new areas in different countries. The catalogs and the web pages of the different countries, or associations, individual companies, etc. show the stones that are extracted, or processed and marketed by them, and therefore, by definition, are only a partial database. It is also a good idea to check on whether the stone of your choice is still being extracted. Being a unique and irreplaceable product of nature, perhaps the deposits of the stone in question no longer exist.

 




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technical parameters

How does natural stone compare to other alternatives in terms of sustainability?

Sustainability in natural stone is best understood in the context of thinking of lifecycle. This would mean analyzing factors like preparation of raw materials, manufacture of pre-products, the production phase, end of life disposal, etc. Impact assessment includes energy consumption, raw material consumption, greenhouse effect, acidification, over fertilization, environmental toxins, waste, etc. Natural stone has already been made over hundreds of millions of years and it is mined and the processing is done by physical, and not chemical means. The sub-products can be recycled. The burden on the environment is low thus making natural stone the ideal hard floor covering, when green thinking and sustainability is the criteria. (Ref. German study on hard floor coverings at www.wonasa.com).




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What are the different sizes recommended in natural stone?

Depends on the particular application of the stone. Mosaics are available in the market in sizes as small as 1cm x 1cm. And there are also stone tiles of 1.20 m x 1 m, and sometimes, even bigger. Widely used sizes, however, are 60 x 30 cm, 60 x 60 cm, 120 x 60 cm. The architect can define the size of the project. Recommended sizes by the manufacturers are based not only on aesthetic criteria but also take into account the size of the blocks extracted in the quarries and the optimization in the production systems in the factories to achieve minimum wastage.




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What are the general physical properties of natural stone that should be taken into consideration ?

One should ask for the technical data sheet of the stone in consideration. The data will be of-1-a) water absorption b) Compressive strength   c) Frost resistance  d) Resistance to Bending e) Density f) Abrasive resistance. For external applications testing is becoming increasingly important especially in humid climates.In hot countries certain stones alter themselves, the physical appearance may change




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What are the technical standards for stone used in exteriors?

There are different standards in different places. In the USA, for example, the ASTM standards are followed, in most of Europe the EN standards are the norm. In the UK, the BSI standard prevails.




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areas of use

How can I find the natural stone suitable for my project?

You should first ask yourself the following questions-  in which climate will the natural stone be used, and for what application? Is the climate of the place extreme, very cold, or very hot, is it moderate, or is it humid, or is it a combination of several climates ?Is the  application for which you are looking for natural stone, an exterior or is it for interior? Is it a wall cladding or is it a flooring? Based on the answer to the above questions, you should now look for natural stone on the basis of physical and chemical properties and the local standards.




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What are the advantages of choosing natural stone for kitchen tops?

There are many reasons worth mentioning for using natural stone as countertop in your kitchen.

Lundhs natural stone, granite, is an excellent choice for kitchen worktops:

  • User friendly: food can be prepared directly on it because the stone is naturally hard, heat- and scratch-resistant
  • A healthy alternative: tested and proven radon risk-free and with no added engineered quartz
  • Durable: with almost zero absorption, food spills or detergents cannot damage the material
Can a granite countertop withstand spills?



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What is the range of natural stones that exist in colours?

Endless! From pure white to the darkest black, and with a dazzling spectrum in between. The widest range of colors and their different combinations that exist in nature.




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What kind of natural stones are suitable for my climate?

The key is to know the natural stone application- will it be used outside or inside? Will it be used for an interior wall cladding, or will the application be for a high traffic flooring? Or will its application be a kitchen countertop or in the bathroom, or for use on steps, or window sills? The analysis of the physical and chemical properties of the natural stone will guide you to the best choice.





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finishes

What are the best finishes for pools?

Appearance, ease of cleanliness and durability are all important for selecting a material for a pool, but the most critical condition is probably safety and to ensure the surface is non-slippery.

Sawn finish gives more friction, and flamed finish gives the desired non-slippery properties. The edges around the pool and the stairs into the pool should be with made with non slippery properties like this, due to safety.

A polished surface has almost non friction, and it is very easy to clean. The vertical walls and the floor in the pool can be made with a polished finish.

Which surfaces are suitable for pool areas?
Beauty treatments for granite



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What are the different finishes that exist for natural stone ?

There are a wide variety of finishes, all of them help to highlight the beauty of the natural stone and to serve a certain purpose of usage. Some of the finishes are- polished, honed, sawed, sawed finish with diamond disk,bush hammered, flamed, aged, brushed, silk effect ( with or without shine), leather finish, antique,split finish, etc. Constant innovation by the industry has now allowed us to enjoy new finishes for different kinds of stones. The properties of each stone defines which finishes can be applied and what changes take place to the aesthetic appearance of the material.

Beauty treatments for granite



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What kind of finish is suitable for indoor flooring?

Indoor flooring requires polished surface for easiness of cleaning as well as appearance. Honed, silk or leather finish is also popular for similar areas.

Beauty treatments for granite



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What kind of finish is suitable for outdoor flooring?

Polished finish is not recommended for outdoor flooring or flooring in wet areas such as swimming pools or spas, due to slippery surface. Outdoor flooring and wet areas require a finish with higher friction, such as flamed or hammered finish.

Beauty treatments for granite



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installation types

Can I install natural stone on my barbeque terrace?

Yes. Just make sure that the stone you use is a high density, low absorption one,this will mean the floor will stay clean for a long, long time.




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Can natural stone be installed on an existing floor/on a dry screed with adhesives?

The important thing is that no stress is caused which leads to deformation of the fixed stone and the whole structure remains durable. In other words, the surface on which the natural stone will be installed should be flat, solid, stable, and durable. There are many adhesives suitable for such floor assembling.




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Is the installation of natural stone tiles complicated?

Stone installation is best done and is easy when done by stone professionals. A great stone poorly installed may end up looking bad. If possible, ask your stone installer to show you his previous jobs on installation. The key thing to take into account is that if you choose the right stone for the right application, and follow the instructions for cleaning and maintenance, there should be no problem.




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Is there any information available for fixing natural stone in wall claddings?

There are many official and non-official organisations who have elaborated manuals which define the criteria and specifications in the case of wall cladding and flooring.The different manufacturers of anchoring systems should also be able to give you full and complete information on the existing technologies.




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maintenance

How can I avoid the situation of stains/efflorescence resulting from moisture and salts out after installation of the stones?

The stone should be treated on the back side and on the flanks of the stone with an alkali-resistant special coating in conjunction with silica sand.




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How can I protect/seal/impregnate my limestone to prevent staining?

Depending on the stone, it is advisable to use either non-color changing or color enhancing impregnation. Impregnation penetrates inside the stone surface, however, they do not form a coating layer. Impregnation allows the stone to keep its breathability but at the same time protect against the easy penetration of soiling substances ( oil, water, dirt, etc.).




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How can the natural properties of natural stone be improved by the use of chemicals?

If the problem is that the stone is breaking up, there are resins which help to consolidate stone. If the problem is that of oxidation, then the oxide needs to be removed first and then the surface protected with specific resins to make them impermeable. Where is the stone installed? In case it is a wall perhaps a water-resistant liquid may be needed every 5 years. Or perhaps an anti-graffiti. In restoration work, stone can be improved, it can be protected against external agents. The chemicals help to enhance the natural beauty of the stone.




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How can you improve the state of stone with different chemicals?

If the problem is that the stone is breaking up, there are resins which help to consolidate stone. If the problem is that of oxidation, then the oxide needs to be removed first and then the surface protected with specific resins to make them impermeable. Where is the stone installed ? In the wall perhaps a water-resistant liquid may be needed every 5 years. Or perhaps an anti-graffiti. In restoration work, stone can be improved, it can be protected against external agents. The chemicals help to enhance the natural beauty of the stone.




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sustainability

Does Lundhs material contain radon?

A finished product from Lundhs material portfolio does not contain any threat from radon.




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Is granite from Lundhs durable?

We regard the granites in our portfolio as one the most durable materials in the world. This is supported by the technical properties, but also judged from the appearance of some of our reference projects which have had a minimal change in appearance over time. Typical maintenance of a surface with our materials is just cleaning.




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Is natural stone radioactive?

Radioactivity is all around us in the environment, it is part of nature, emitted by the sun, it is in the soil, air,etc. It is also emitted by the modern appliances like TVs, etc. Granite does emit very small amounts of radioactive gas radon, and also by direct radioactive decay. Therefore, the appropriate question to ask is -is the level dangerous ? The answer is very clearly- NO. Several scientific studies have been conducted, mostly in USA, on this matter and they all ratify this conclusion. (For more information on the matter, consult www.marble-institute.com/consumers/granite_radoninfo.cfm)




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Will the color and gloss of natural stone last?

When using natural stone, durability is for some architects a concern. Some other materials, as for example coated metal panels, come with a guarantee of 25 years. For granite there is normally no guarantees. But a natural granite stone façade should have almost no degradation of gloss or color if the right stone is selected. The best thing to do is looking for a reference project with a long history, as a proof of the stones durability when it comes to color and gloss.

Beauty treatments for granite



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useful information

How can I find the natural stone suitable for my project?

You should first ask yourself the following questions-  in which climate will the natural stone be used, and for what application? Is the climate of the place extreme, very cold, or very hot, is it moderate, or is it humid, or is it a combination of several climates ?Is the  application for which you are looking for natural stone, an exterior or is it for interior? Is it a wall cladding or is it a flooring? Based on the answer to the above questions, you should now look for natural stone on the basis of physical and chemical properties and the local standards.




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Where can I buy materials from Lundhs?

Lundhs is a quarrying company, but listed you can find some thrustworthy stores where you can buy our materials. Go to Store-locator




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